These factors exhibited high internal consistency in that the alpha did not rise when scale items were purged. Thus, for purposes of this study, directive leadership was accepted as unidimensional. Empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness had one factor each. The declared variance for empowering leadership was The number of items and their individual loadings for all the factors satisfied the guidelines as per Hair et al. The correlation coefficients between leader CQ and each of its dimensions with leadership effectiveness ranged from a high of 0.
Empowering leadership demonstrated a higher correlation with leadership effectiveness than did directive leadership 0. Moderated multiple regressions. Tables 7 and 8 present the results of the moderated multiple regressions that were performed to establish whether leader CQ and its dimensions influenced the relationship between empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness as well as that between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness.
As can be observed from table 7 , the failure of the interaction terms to achieve statistical significance indicated that neither leader CQ, as an aggregate value, nor any of its individual dimensions displayed a moderator effect on the relationship between empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness. Thus, H1 0 and H2 0 were not rejected.
Table 8 demonstrates that leader CQ as well as its four dimensions did exhibit a statistically significant moderation effect on the relationship between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness. Hence, both H3 0 and H4 0 were rejected. Figure 1 displays the absence of moderation by aggregate leader CQ on the relationship between empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness.
Figure 2 indicates that aggregate leader CQ moderated the relationship between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness. The influencing effects of the leader CQ dimensions were almost exactly the same as the aforementioned patterns and are therefore not presented here. Figure 1 reveal that the intercepts for the three levels of leader CQ are close to one another and that the slopes of the lines are essentially parallel.
In this case, it can be noted that moderation did not take place. Figure 2 reflects, in contrast, that moderation did occur as the intercepts are further apart and the lines have non-parallel slopes. The slope of the line where leader CQ is low is steeper than that of the line where leader CQ is high. This suggests that the moderation effect is greater at lower, rather than higher, levels of leader CQ.
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The positive relationship that was found to exist between leader CQ and leadership effectiveness given the different cultures of the respondents is in line with the findings of Rockstuhl et al. The further finding that leader CQ acted as an important predictor of leadership effectiveness complements the results of Groves and Feyerherm On a sub-scale level, the result that leader metacognitive, cognitive and motivational CQ shared statistically significant relationships with leadership effectiveness offers support for the results of Musamali and Martin The result that leader behavioural CQ also had a relationship of statistical significance with leadership effectiveness, nevertheless, contradicts what Musamali and Martin established with regard to leader behavioural CQ and leadership effectiveness.
This research also provides evidence that both empowering and directive leadership had a relationship with leadership effectiveness that carried statistical significance. The strength of these relationships was, however, much greater for empowering leadership than it was for directive leadership.
Although there may be various explanations for this difference in strength, it is possible that it may have been a function of the cultural profiles of the respondents being of such a nature that they were more inclined towards empowering, as opposed to directive, leadership.
It is important to note that of the relationships identified in this study, just those between leader CQ in aggregate, metacognitive CQ, motivational CQ and empowering leadership with leadership effectiveness are significant at a practical level. Being moderate in nature, all the other relationships carried less real-world relevance. Employing the methodology of Garnett et al. As pointed out above, directive leadership as the second independent variable too, achieved a relationship of statistical significance with leadership effectiveness.
In this case the effects of all the interaction terms that is, directive leadership multiplied by leader CQ and directive leadership multiplied by the CQ dimensions were statistically significant, implying moderation. The corresponding t -statistics were negative in all instances, indicating that a leader's CQ, and its dimensions, in fact served to reduce the strength of the relationship between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness. As the respective changes in R 2 attributed to all the interaction terms were below 0.
Thus, the moderator effects of leader CQ and its dimensions on the relationship between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness were not significant from a practical perspective. Note that practical significance was not considered in the case of empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness, as none of the observed effects for the interaction terms carried statistical importance.
A possible reason why leader CQ and its dimensions did not moderate the relationship between empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness could be that those leaders who practice this style of leadership do so because they are culturally intelligent as evidenced by the high correlation between leader CQ and empowering leadership. Similarly, it is conceivable that leader CQ, both in aggregate and dimensionally, moderated the relationship between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness because such leaders are viewed as being less culturally intelligent than their empowering counterparts see Table 6.
The negative direction of this moderation might be a signal that as directive leaders become increasingly culturally intelligent, they ought to realise a different leadership style would be more appropriate. Theoretical implications. This research provides evidence for the four factor theoretical structure of CQ as conceptualised by Earley and Ang This result supports the findings of Mahembe and Engelbrecht who established the validity of the four CQ dimensions in their study of full-time students at a South African university.
The CQ and leadership nomological networks have also been increased as it has been shown that leader CQ, including each of its dimensions, as well as empowering and directive leadership, all exhibited statistically significant associations with leadership effectiveness. Further, it was established that leader CQ and its dimensions did not influence the relationship between empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness and also that, whilst at a statistical level they did act as negative moderators of the relationship between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness, such moderation was actually of no practical consequence.
Taking account of the relative strength of the relationships between each of the leader CQ dimensions with leadership effectiveness, leaders are advised to direct attention to the development of their metacognitive CQ in particular. It would also be important for them to enhance their levels of motivational CQ as this was the CQ dimension that recorded the second strongest relationship with leadership effectiveness. As subordinates perceived empowering leadership, rather than directive leadership, to be more strongly associated with leadership effectiveness, leaders, in general, should pursue an empowering style.
However, leaders are advised to exercise caution in indiscriminately empowering subordinates in that some of them, given their particular cultures, may not embrace this approach see Cheong et al. Leaders should further note that neither their CQ nor any of its individual dimensions are important influencers of the relationships that the leadership styles in this case empowering and directive leadership had with leadership effectiveness.
It is suggested that culturally intelligent leaders could be using their CQ to inform themselves concerning selecting a suitable style of leadership; that is, leader CQ including its dimensions may affect the choice of leadership style. Limitations and recommendations.
The first limitation of this study relates to the use of a convenience sample. The scope for generalisation of the findings to the target population as a whole may therefore be restricted. This limitation, however, was somewhat allayed by the fact that 1 the participating organisations represent numerous industry types and are of varying sizes and 2 respondents within each of the organisations were chosen randomly.
A second limitation concerns the richness of the insights in that these could have been amplified had a mixed methods approach been used. Finally, collecting leader CQ and leadership style data from leaders themselves, together with actual effectiveness information, might have delivered different results.
It is recommended that future research efforts endeavour to optimise sample randomisation. Attempts to triangulate the results through qualitative approaches as well as leader sourced views and financial data to support leadership effectiveness would also be beneficial. As this study specifically concentrated on just two leadership styles, it would be valuable to include other leadership styles such as authentic, ethical and servant in future research.
Lastly, the addition of extra predictor variables for example, the leader's age and tenure could allow for the predictive role of leadership style to be placed in context. This study has contributed to addressing the research problem as discussed in the introduction section; the aim of the authors has thus been achieved. In particular, leader CQ and its dimensions neither strengthened nor weakened the relationship between empowering leadership and leadership effectiveness.
Notwithstanding statistical evidence indicating that leader CQ and its dimensions did reduce the strength of the relationship between directive leadership and leadership effectiveness, especially at lower levels of leader CQ and its dimensions, the respective impacts were too benign to suggest that such influence had any practical effect. The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article. Ahearne, M.
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